None of the impression material showed a consistent behavior up to the fourth pour. They occasionally showed deviation from the pattern, but all these values were statistically insignificant. Polyethers showed lesser ability than both the addition silicones as well as the condensation silicones to recover from induced deformation.
Addition silicones as well as the condensation silicones have better ability to recover from induced deformation when compared to polyether. Alloncle, A.
Onboard volumetric imaging systems can provide accurate data of the patient's anatomy during a course of head and neck radiotherapy making it possible to assess the actual delivered dose and to evaluate the dosimetric impact of complex daily positioning variations and gradual anatomic changes such as geometric variations of tumors and normal tissues or shrinkage of external contours. Adaptive radiotherapy is defined as the correction of a patient's treatment planning to adapt for individual variations observed during treatment.
Strategies are developed to selectively identify patients that require replanning because of an intolerable dosimetric drift. Automated tools are designed to limit time consumption. Deformable image registration algorithms are the cornerstones of these strategies, but a better understanding of their limits of validity is required before adaptive radiotherapy can be safely introduced to daily practice.
Moreover, strict evaluation of the clinical benefits is yet to be proven. Pouring rights contracts and childhood overweight: a critical theory perspective.
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To examine school environments, and in particular, pouring rights contracts and how they relate to childhood overweight from a critical theory perspective. Pouring rights contracts provide a profit to powerful mega-corporations at the expense of children's health. There is a need to move beyond a solely individual approach to addressing childhood overweight and involve a social ecology approach.
This would involve a push for social change, including removal of soda machines from schools, and changing marketing practices targeted at children.
Nurses are poised in community situations to actively effect social changes to improve health outcomes of our nation's most vulnerable people, but nurses must get involved. Big drinkers: how BMI, gender and rules of thumb influence the free pouring of wine. This research examines free pouring behavior and provides an account of how Body Mass Index BMI and gender might lead to the overpouring, and consequently the overconsumption of wine. An observational study with young adults investigated how BMI and gender affect free- pouring of wine over a variety of pouring scenarios, and how rules-of-thumb in pouring affect the quantities of alcohol poured by men and women across BMI categories.
For men, the amount poured was positively related to BMI. However, BMI did not affect pours by women. Importantly, this rule-of-thumb substantially attenuated the pours by men at high BMI levels. Increasing awareness of pouring biases represents an early and effective step toward curbing alcohol consumption among men, and especially those who are overweight. Additionally, using a simple "half glass" rule-of-thumb may be an effective way to curb overpouring, despite non-standard glass sizes. Published by Elsevier B.
Microcystic adnexal carcinoma following radiotherapy in childhood. A year-old man was treated by radiotherapy for tinea capitis many years before discovery of microcystic adnexal carcinoma MAC. Because of patient's refusal of any surgical intervention, we were able to follow the natural course of this tumor for 13 years.
This case emphasizes the typical slow development of MAC. The implication of the association of MAC and radiotherapy are discussed.
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Radiotherapy in patients with connective tissue diseases. The decision to offer radiotherapy in patients with connective tissue diseases continues to be challenging. Radiotherapy might trigger the onset of connective tissue diseases by increasing the expression of self-antigens, diminishing regulatory T-cell activity, and activating effectors of innate immunity dendritic cells through Toll-like receptor-dependent mechanisms, all of which could potentially lead to breaks of immune tolerance. This potential risk has raised some debate among radiation oncologists about whether patients with connective tissue diseases can tolerate radiation as well as people without connective tissue diseases.
Because the number of patients with cancer and connective tissue diseases needing radiotherapy will probably increase due to improvements in medical treatment and longer life expectancy, the issue of interactions between radiotherapy and connective tissue diseases needs to be clearer.
In this Review, we discuss available data and evidence for patients with connective tissue diseases treated with radiotherapy. Radiotherapy in marginal zone lymphoma. The median radiotherapy dose was 40 Gy 5 to 45 Gy. Results The median follow-up time was months.
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There was no infield recurrence. Recurrence occurred outside of the radiation field in six patients. RT is also an effective salvage therapy in cases of localized recurrence. Further clinical studies should evaluate the optimal dose for MZL. Ion-induced nuclear radiotherapy. Ion-induced Nuclear Radiotherapy INRT is a technique for conducting radiosurgery and radiotherapy with a very high degree of control over the spatial extent of the irradiated volume and the delivered dose.
Based upon the concept that low energy, ion induced atomic and nuclear reactions can be used to produce highly energetic reaction products at the site of a tumor, the INRT technique is implemented through the use of a conduit-needle or tube which conducts a low energy ion beam to a position above or within the intended treatment area.
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At the end of the conduit-needle or tube is a specially fabricated target which, only when struck by the ion beam, acts as a source of energetic radiation products. The inherent limitations in the energy, and therefore range, of the resulting reaction products limits the spatial extent of irradiation to a pre-defined volume about the point of reaction. Furthermore, since no damage is done to tissue outside this irradiated volume, the delivered dose may be made arbitrarily large.
INRT may be used both as a point-source of radiation at the site of a small tumor, or as a topical bath of radiation to broad areas of diseased tissue. Gel polymers are considered as new dosimeters for determining radiotherapy dose distribution in three dimensions. The ability of a new formulation of MAGIC-f polymer gel was assessed by experimental measurement and Monte Carlo MC method for studying the effect of gold nanoparticles GNPs in prostate dose distributions under the internal Ir and external 18MV radiotherapy practices.
A Plexiglas phantom was made representing human pelvis. The GNP shaving 15 nm in diameter and 0. The fabricated gel was poured in the tubes located at the prostate with and without the GNPs and bladder locations of the phantom.
The phantom was irradiated to an Ir source and 18 MV beam of a Varian linac separately based on common radiotherapy procedures used for prostate cancer. After 24 hours, the irradiated gels were read using a Siemens 1. The absolute doses at the reference points and isodose curves resulted from the experimental measurement of the gels and MC simulations following the internal and external radiotherapy practices were compared. The results indicated that the polymer gel dosimetry method as developed and used in this study, can be recommended as a reliable method for investigating the DEF of GNPs in internal and external radiotherapy practices.
Radiogenomics and radiotherapy response modeling. Advances in patient-specific information and biotechnology have contributed to a new era of computational medicine. Radiogenomics has emerged as a new field that investigates the role of genetics in treatment response to radiation therapy. Radiation oncology is currently attempting to embrace these recent advances and add to its rich history by maintaining its prominent role as a quantitative leader in oncologic response modeling.
Here, we provide an overview of radiogenomics starting with genotyping, data aggregation, and application of different modeling approaches based on modifying traditional radiobiological methods or application of advanced machine learning techniques. We highlight the current status and potential for this new field to reshape the landscape of outcome modeling in radiotherapy and drive future advances in computational oncology.
Advances in Radiotherapy for Glioblastoma.
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External beam radiotherapy RT has long played a crucial role in the treatment of glioblastoma. Over the past several decades, significant advances in RT treatment and image-guidance technology have led to enormous improvements in the ability to optimize definitive and salvage treatments. This review highlights several of the latest developments and controversies related to RT, including the treatment of elderly patients, who continue to be a fragile and vulnerable population; potential salvage options for recurrent disease including reirradiation with chemotherapy; the latest imaging techniques allowing for more accurate and precise delineation of treatment volumes to maximize the therapeutic ratio of conformal RT; the ongoing preclinical and clinical data regarding the combination of immunotherapy with RT; and the increasing evidence of cancer stem-cell niches in the subventricular zone which may provide a potential target for local therapies.
Finally, continued development on many fronts have allowed for modestly improved outcomes while at the same time limiting toxicity. Intraoperative radiotherapy and colorectal cancer. Intraoperative radiotherapy IORT is a highly specialized component of multidisciplinary management of advanced and recurrent colorectal cancer. The aim of this review was to assess its role and effectiveness in the management of colorectal cancer.